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Title: The value added of underground activities: size and measurement of the shadow economies of 110 countries all over the world
Author(s): Schneider, Friedrich
Keywords: state regulatory activities
social security contributions
shadow economy
labour force
transition and OECD countries
Date created: 2002
Using various methods estimates about the size of the shadow economy in 110 developing, transition and OECD countries are presented. The average size of the shadow economy (in percent of official GDP) over 1999-2000 in developing countries is 41%, in transition countries 38% and in OECD countries 18.0%. An increasing burden of taxation and social security contributions combined with rising state regulatory activities are the driving forces for the growth and size of the shadow economy (labor force).
Type: Journal article
Appears in Collections:Open Access Research

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